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Concretely, attackers can use this novel attack technique to read information that was previously assumed to be safely encrypted.

This can be abused to steal sensitive information such as credit card numbers, passwords, chat messages, emails, photos, and so on.

For example, an attacker might be able to inject ransomware or other malware into websites.

The weaknesses are in the Wi-Fi standard itself, and not in individual products or implementations.

However, because messages may be lost or dropped, the Access Point (AP) will retransmit message 3 if it did not receive an appropriate response as acknowledgment.

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The same technique can also be used to attack the group key, Peer Key, TDLS, and fast BSS transition handshake.When the victim reinstalls the key, associated parameters such as the incremental transmit packet number (i.e. Unfortunately, we found this is not guaranteed by the WPA2 protocol.By manipulating cryptographic handshakes, we can abuse this weakness in practice.All our attacks against WPA2 use a novel technique called a key reinstallation attack (KRACK): In a key reinstallation attack, the adversary tricks a victim into reinstalling an already-in-use key.This is achieved by manipulating and replaying cryptographic handshake messages. Essentially, to guarantee security, a key should only be installed and used once.Each time it receives this message, it will reinstall the same encryption key, and thereby reset the incremental transmit packet number (nonce) and receive replay counter used by the encryption protocol.We show that an attacker can force these nonce resets by collecting and replaying retransmissions of message 3 of the 4-way handshake.This handshake is executed when a client wants to join a protected Wi-Fi network, and is used to confirm that both the client and access point possess the correct credentials (e.g. At the same time, the 4-way handshake also negotiates a fresh encryption key that will be used to encrypt all subsequent traffic.Currently, all modern protected Wi-Fi networks use the 4-way handshake.It will install this key after receiving message 3 of the 4-way handshake.Once the key is installed, it will be used to encrypt normal data frames using an encryption protocol.

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