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(Complete Biblical Library Greek-English Dictionary) Kaisar - Usage: Caesar(21), Caesar's(8). God had promised that the Saviour would be a human, not an angel (Gen. ) in heaven, and to God, the Judge of all, and to the spirits of [the] righteous made perfect, (Heb. First Census taken while Quirinius was governor of Syria - Critics of the inerrancy and inspiration of the Bible appeal to this passage as an example of an error. Ryrie on Quirinius was governor of Syria - Apparently he was governor of Syria twice: from 4 B. And the same is true regarding the years of Quirinius’ governorship. Dayton, Norman Giesler addresses a question critics raise noting that "Luke states that the census decreed by Augustus was the first one taken while Quirinius was governor of Syria. Luke has proven himself to be a reliable historian even in the details.
-23-note) INHABITED EARTH: oikoumene ~ the inhabited earth when it has political reference in the NT, speaks of the Roman Empire or the Roman world. As one scholar has pointed out, “The probabilities are against Luke’s having been careless of a point so easily checked when he was affirming to a prominent leader his own care for accuracy, and was using historical detail to substantiate his central message.” Another scholar, William Ramsay, asked “how, if Luke made such a glaring error in the facts surrounding the birth of Christ, did these inaccuracies escape the attention of the enemies of the Gospel in Roman times? However, Quirinius did not become governor of Syria until after the death of Herod in about A. Sir William Ramsey has shown that in making reference to 32 countries, 54 cities, and 9 islands he made no mistakes!
Further, the Christian doctrine of the inerrancy of the Word of God (2 Timothy , 2 Peter –21) leads us to accept explanation (2) or (3) as the most likely, with the most evidence pointing to explanation (3).
The Bible is true and spoken from God’s mouth (God-breathed), and we accept it as truth more than the historical writings of the Romans or even the writings of the Jewish historian Josephus.
The biblical details of Jesus’ birth are found in the Gospels. Further, after Joseph and Mary fled Bethlehem with Jesus, Herod ordered all the boys 2 years old and younger in that vicinity killed. Quirinius governed Syria during this same time period, with records of a census that included Judea in approximately 6 B. Some scholars debate whether this is the census mentioned by Luke, but it does appear to be the same event. Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea approximately 6–5 B. Luke 2:3 And everyone was on his way to register for the census, each to his own city.This was the first registration when Quirinius was governor of Syria.” We know that Caesar Augustus reigned from 27 B. The only time period that fits all of these facts is A. Rome was not just seeking to determine how many people lived in Judah but wanted to assure that all paid their taxes!Octavian was ruling and declared himself ''Augustus Caesar'' = he was declaring himself God. My Son is God.'' O LITTLE TOWN OF BETHLEHEM Click below for excellent map with captions relating to events of Jesus' birth. See Luke 1 Commentary for word study on Nazareth including The Puzzling Problem of Nazareth.God is sovereign over everything, including the timing of events! Proverbs says that "The king's heart is like channels of water in the hand of the LORD; He turns it wherever He wishes" (Pr 21:1) and so in Luke's account we see God moving the heart of Augustus who, by his edict calling for a census, sets the historical stage for the Messiah to be born in Bethlehem.God through the edict caused Joseph to go from Nazareth to Bethlehem in order to fulfill Micah 5:2 Spurgeon - Little did any idea enter into Caesar’s head that he was accomplishing the purpose of God by bringing Mary to Bethlehem, at that particular time, so that her child might be born there.He did believe, however, that the rather limited part of the "world" ("inhabited world") which was controlled by Rome was all that deserved the designation. Henry Morris - Caesar Augustus, the first and probably greatest true emperor of Rome, consolidated power under himself and effectively terminated the days of the Roman republic in the period from 44 B. History tells us that Caesar Augustus reigned over the Roman Empire from 27 BC to AD 14 and ordered a census to be conducted during his tenure.Herod the Great reigned until 4 BC, meaning Jesus has to be born sometime before that time.The “first census” mentioned in Luke 2:2 occurred during his first term as governor, and another was ordered during his second term as governor mentioned in Acts , which probably took place between AD 6–7 (Josephus links this census to an uprising under Judas of Galilee).With Luke being the author of both Luke and Acts and wanting to write in “consecutive order” (Luke 1:3), it would seem unlikely for Luke to make such a mistake in dating.“Caesar” was originally the family name of Gaius Julius Caesar. )." If they had read and interpreted literally the prophecy of Daniel they would have recognized Messiah the Prince (see Da -note; Da -note; Da -note; Da -note). Now in those days a decree went out from Caesar Augustus that a census be taken - See note on census. One concerns the census in the time of Quirinius mentioned in chapter 2. To the contrary, Quirinius was a notable military leader who was responsible for squelching the rebellion of the Homonadensians in Asia Minor.Julius Caesar was the final leader of the Roman Republic. C., by opponents in the Roman Senate who were concerned that he had amassed too much power. Octavian had gained for himself the Republic’s ancient sacral title “Augustus” and was officially known as Imperator Caesar divi filius Augustus (“the Emperor Caesar Augustus, sacred son of god”). Luke 2:1), gradually consolidated virtual monarchic power in the imperial office, bringing the Roman Republic to a close and founding what is known as the “Principate.” Following his death in A. 14 each of his successors took the name “Caesar” as their imperial title. Wiersbe - Augustus Caesar was ruling, but God was in charge, for He used Caesar's edict to move Mary and Joseph eighty miles from Nazareth to Bethlehem to fulfill His Word. (583) (apographo from apo = from grapho = to write)) is used here literally of citizens enrolled or registered, e.g., as occurred in an official registration in tax lists. Agographo is translated in the NAS: census be taken(1), enrolled(1), register(1), register for the census(1). There is no record that Augustus ever ordered such a census, and there is dispute over whether Quirinius was indeed governor of Syria at the time when Jesus was born. First, Quintilius Varus was governor of Syria from about 7 B. When it came time to begin the census, in about 8 or 7 B. A Latin inscription discovered in 1764 has been interpreted to refer to Quirinius as having served as governor of Syria on two occasions.