Terrence higgins trust dating

In one of the most highly publicised statements, in October 2003, the President of the Vatican's Pontifical Council for the Family, Cardinal Alfonso Lopez Trujillo, said: "The AIDS virus is roughly 450 times smaller than the spermatozoon.The spermatozoon can easily pass through the 'net' that is formed by the condom.These margins of uncertainty...should represent an obligation on the part of the health ministries and all these campaigns to act in the same way as they do with regard to cigarettes, which they state to be a danger." Finding out the degree to which condoms protect against HIV is important both for HIV-negative people who want to protect themselves against HIV, and HIV-positive people who want to avoid transmitting it.Knowing how well they protect against other STIs is important for sexual health in general and may be particularly important for people with HIV, who may be more vulnerable to the effects of certain STIs.The efficacy of an intervention is how well it works in a scientific trial or when people use it as indicated, i.e.consistently; its effectiveness is how well it actually works to prevent disease or infection in a given population, given actual levels of use.Laboratory studies and product testing have shown that reputable condoms tested in the laboratory are completely impermeable to micro-organisms as small as viruses.However, the same studies show that condoms come off the penis altogether 3 to 5% of the time but may slip down (but not off) up to 13% of the time.

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For efficacy against HIV and other chronic STIs, studies of the incidence of HIV (or HSV or HPV) in monogamous serodiscordant couples provides the best evidence.Despite this, the use and promotion of condoms continue to be targets for controversy and criticism, and sexual abstinence and monogamy are often promoted as superior alternatives.While condoms offer useful and vital protection, they have also become associated with promiscuity and infidelity.Studies of condom efficacy have therefore largely contrasted HIV and STI incidence or prevalence in people who claim 100% consistent use against people who use them inconsistently or not at all.Because these studies involve private behaviours that investigators cannot observe directly, it is difficult to determine accurately whether an individual is a condom user and whether condoms are used consistently and correctly.Another kind of study is to conduct a prospective cohort study, looking at differences in HIV incidence between two groups of people according to their usage of condoms.This cannot be a randomised controlled study, but participants’ HIV and STI incidence can be related to their condom use either at baseline or preferably (because behaviours change over time) by means of regular questionnaires and monitoring.The main findings of studies we look at in more detail below are as follows: These degrees of protection may be lower than some readers expect, and rates of 98% reliability are still sometimes quoted for condoms.These are based upon observations of their use in contraception: studies have shown that 98% of women relying on condoms as their sole form of contraception remain pregnancy free if condoms are used perfectly, meaning that they are used consistently and correctly at every act of sexual intercourse.However, because they are not always used correctly even if they are used consistently, studies have found efficacy rates of 85 to 87% when young women use condoms as their sole form of contraception.Condoms are, however, the only method on that list that has been shown to protect against STIs as well as pregnancy.

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