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Texas thus became an independent country with its own president, congress, and monetary system. Lamar visited the area during a buffalo-hunting expedition between 18, he proposed that the republic's capital, then in Houston, be relocated to the area situated on the north bank of the Colorado River (near the present-day Congress Avenue Bridge). Lamar, second president of the newly formed Republic of Texas, advised the commissioners to investigate the area named Waterloo, noting the area's hills, waterways, and pleasant surroundings.In 1839, the Texas Congress formed a commission to seek a site for a new capital to be named for Stephen F. The original site was narrowed to 640 acres (260 ha) that fronted the Colorado River between two creeks, Shoal Creek and Waller Creek, which was later named in his honor.The area's earliest known inhabitants lived during the late Pleistocene (Ice Age) and are linked to the Clovis culture around 9200 BC (11,200 years ago), based on evidence found throughout the area and documented at the much-studied Gault Site, midway between Georgetown and Fort Hood.In 1730, three missions from East Texas were combined and reestablished as one mission on the south side of the Colorado River, in what is now Zilker Park, in Austin.The African American population of Austin swelled dramatically after the enforcement of the Emancipation Proclamation in Texas by Union General Gordon Granger at Galveston, in an event commemorated as Juneteenth.Black communities such as Wheatville, Pleasant Hill, and Clarksville were established, with Clarksville being the oldest surviving freedomtown ‒ the original post-Civil War settlements founded by former African-American slaves ‒ west of the Mississippi River.The city also adopted "Silicon Hills" as a nickname in the 1990s due to a rapid influx of technology and development companies.In recent years, some Austinites have adopted the unofficial slogan "Keep Austin Weird", Even today, many Austin businesses use the term "Violet Crown" in their name.
The city's official slogan promotes Austin as "The Live Music Capital of the World", a reference to the city's many musicians and live music venues, as well as the long-running PBS TV concert series Austin City Limits.The mission was in this area for only about seven months, and then was moved to San Antonio de Béxar and split into three missions.In 1835–1836, Texans fought and won independence from Mexico.Cotton was one of the few crops produced locally for export, and a cotton gin engine was located downtown near the trains for "ginning" cotton of its seeds and turning the product into bales for shipment.In addition, the areas east of Austin took over cattle and cotton production from Austin, especially in towns like Hutto and Taylor that sit over the blackland prairie, with its deep, rich soils for producing cotton and hay.Austin, the "Father of Texas" and the republic's first secretary of state.The city grew throughout the 19th century and became a center for government and education with the construction of the Texas State Capitol and the University of Texas at Austin.On August 1, 1839, the first auction of 217 out of 306 lots total was held.The grid plan Waller designed and surveyed now forms the basis of downtown Austin.In 1840, a series of conflicts between the Texas Rangers and the Comanches, known as the Council House Fight and the Battle of Plum Creek, pushed the Comanches westward, mostly ending conflicts in Central Texas. But Lamar's political enemy, Sam Houston, used two Mexican army incursions to San Antonio as an excuse to move the government.Sam Houston fought bitterly against Lamar's decision to establish the capital in such a remote wilderness.